(sorted by first author)
Niklas Andersson, Interaction Design Lab, Institute of Design, Umeå
In the future the proportion of elderly in the population
rapidly, while those who will take care of them will be fewer
The goal with the project was to create a vision of how
and designated hardware and software can make
tomorrows’ home care
more efficient, with increased quality and flexibility.
Window Frames as Areas for Information Visualization
Staffan Björk, PLAY Research Studio, Interactive Institute
We describe how the frames of document windows can be used as areas for visualizing information about a document. A number of design examples are presented as illustrations of how users can be supported with contextual information about a document in a way that does not interfere with the visual presentation of the document itself. A ChangeIndicator is used as an example of how information can be mapped to basic design variables of a frame, such as its color. More complex visualizations can be achieved by mapping information about parts of documents to parts or details of the frame. This is illustrated with a ReadabilityViewer. Finally, the ScrollSearcher is presented as an example of how the results of processes and functions can be visualized in the frames of a document.
Personas in Action: Ethnography in an Interaction Design Team.Åsa Blomquist, Department of Information Technology, Swedish National Tax Board
Mattias Arvola, Department of Computer and Information Science, Linköpings universitet
Alan Cooper’s view on interaction design is both appealing and provoking since it avoids problems of involving users by simply excluding them. The users are instead represented by an archetype of a user, called persona. This paper reports a twelve-week participant observation in an interaction design team with the purpose of learning what really goes on in a design team when they use personas. On the surface it seemed like they used personas, but our analysis show how they had difficulties in using them and encountered problems when trying to imagine the user. We furthermore describe and discuss how the design team tried to involve users in order to compensate for their problems. It is concluded that it is not enough for the whole design team, and particularly not for the interaction designers, to have the know-how of using the method; they also have to integrate it with existing knowledge and practices in order to feel at home with it and use it efficiently.
An Evaluation of Color Patterns for Imaging of Warning Signals in Cockpit Displays
Tatiana Evreinova, TAUCHI Computer-Human Interaction Unit,
Dept. of Computer
and Information Sciences, University of Tampere
The quality of information perception in aircraft cockpit depends on the way of interaction with display unit, including modality, interface structure, and external exploitation conditions. The goal of this work is to find a solution that would allow a real-time imaging or doubling of audible warning signals through spatial-temporal color coding. Software emulation of the peripheral display, the development and pilot evaluation of the method were performed. Presentation of visual signals in paracentral field is efficiently, but their optical and temporal parameters are critical in relation of distraction effect.
Instant Collaboration. Using Context-Aware Instant Messaging for Session Management in Distributed Collaboration Tools
Klaus Marius Hansen, University of Aarhus
We present findings from an investigation of instant messaging use for work-related activities in a commercial setting. Based on these findings, we propose a lightweight session management design for distributed collaboration tools based on context-aware instant messaging. An implementation of this design is presented and an ongoing evaluation is discussed.
The Benefits of a Long Engagement: From Contextual Design to The Co-realising of Work Affording Artefacts
Mark Hartswood, University of Edinburgh
This paper critically examines the contextual design methodology advanced by Holtzblatt and Beyer. We argue that contextual design provides 'thin description' over and against the 'thick description' of ethnomethodologically informed ethnographies and that this tends to impoverish its claims to perspicuous description. As a way of addressing the limitations of contextual design, we propose co-realisation, a methodology that requires a long engagement: i.e. a longitudinal commitment from designers. To illustrate what co-realisation means in practice, the paper concludes with two case studies.
Medium Effects on Persuasion
Jan Heim, SINTEF
In this study the effect of different communicative media on the outcome of the interaction between two persons is studied in relation to persuasion. When does the medium have an impact on an effort to try to convince or persuade another person? When arguing on behalf of a third party, participants did better over Audio-only compared with other media (Text chat, Video, Face-to-face). The results suggest that the other person may yield, but there is no evidence that it will result in opinion change as well. The advantage is probably due to the enhanced formality of the medium.
Organisational implementation: A complex but under-recognised aspect of information-system designMorten Hertzum, Centre for Human-Machine Interaction, Risø National Laboratory
The development of information technology (IT) is often seen as consisting of analysis, design, technical implementation, and testing. While this may involve user input at several stages – to support the software engineers in devising and revising the system – this view on systems development marginalises organisational implementation. Organisational implementation comprises the activities that prepare organisations and users for a new system as well as the activities that prepare the system for the transition period during which it enters into operation and takes over from previous systems and artefacts. This study analyses three organisational-implementation activities undertaken during the complete redesign of a large information system: the information plan, the data conversion, and the release strategy. It is found that these activities must be carefully aligned with the technical implementation of the system and that they involve the development of additional system facilities. In sum, this study provides evidence of the complexity and importance of organisational implementation and, thereby, argues that it must be recognised as a first-rate constituent of the design process.
Exploring the Embodied-Mind Approach to User Experience
Thomas Hoff, Dept of product design, NTNU
This paper presents context-free and technology-free descriptions of basic elements of user experience from an embodied-mind perspective. The Ecological Interaction Properties suggested refer both to aspects of the user as well as aspects of the interface. Examples of the explanatory power of the approach compared to that of contemporary concepts in the HCI-litterature are provided.
User Interfaces for Browsing and Navigation of Continuous Multimedia Data
Wolfgang Huerst, Computer Science Institute, University of
Browsing continuous multimedia data is very important, for example, to find a particular information in a very long document or to get a first quick overview of the content of some unknown data. Unfortunately, common user interfaces do not always support users in the best possible way for this. In this paper, we present the results of a first pilot study we did with some alternative user interfaces for (visual) browsing and navigation of continuous multimedia data. In particular, we focus on fine granular navigation which is critical in case of continuous data.
Personality Preferences in Graphical Interface Design
Arvid Karsvall, Department of Computer and Information Science, Linköping University
The paper presents and discusses the graphical interface design of three interactive television prototypes. These were manipulated in colour and shape in order to display different degrees of extrovert character. The manipulation was based on colour and psychology theory that connects personality traits with visual aesthetics. The first-time impressions of the prototypes were later evaluated in reference to the users’ measured personality traits; this since previous work on postures and voice has shown that personality factors influence the users’ interface design preferences. The user test concludes that the users do recognise the intended extrovert and introvert features of the prototypes.
Adaptive Runtime Layout of Hierarchical UI Components
Heikki Keranen, VTT Electronics
Emerging small mobile terminals, each having a different screen size, create challenges for graphical user interface designers of multi-platform applications and services. In this paper we present a method which considers the screen size of the terminal and the currently active user interface component to divide the screen space for components at runtime. The method is demonstrated by using a modified treemap layout algorithm. The method has many advantages over existing zoomable interfaces using predefined layout including constant information density, context visibility and better suitability for screens being small and having extreme aspect ratios.
Designing for Small Display Screens
Lari Kärkkäinen, Center for Knowledge and
/ Helsinki School of Economics and Business Administration
Wireless access to the Internet via PDAs (personal digital assistants) provides Web type services in the mobile world. What we are lacking are design guidelines for such PDA services. For Web publishing, however, there are many resources to look for guidelines. The guidelines can be classified according to which aspect of the Web media they are related: software/hardware, content and its organization, or aesthetics and layout. In order to be applicable to PDA services, these guidelines have to be modified. In this paper we analyze the main characteristics of PDAs and their influence to the guidelines.
Searching for Optimal Methods of Presenting Dynamic Text on Different Types of Screens
Jari Laarni, Center for Knowledge and Innovation Research, Helsinki School of Economics and Business Administration
Automatic dynamic presentation methods (e.g., vertical scrolling) are thought to be viable alternative means to present text on small-screen interfaces. Here we studied what is the most suitable method for different types of screens (for a laptop, a palm-type pocket computer, a communicator and a mobile phone). Reading rate and comprehension data suggest that there is an optimal screen type for each presentation method. The recommendations based on performance measures, however, differ from those based on usability and preference ratings.
A semiotic-based framework to user interface design
Jair Leite, Rio Grande do Norte Federal University
This work proposes a framework based on the Semiotic Engineering approach that drives designers to specify the application conceptual model and its associated user interface. Our work contributes to user interface design by proposing the LEMD, a linguistic formalism to the user interface specification in an abstract and structured way focusing on what he/she really wants to mean to the users. The resulting specification could be mapped on conventional widgets.
Using Marking Menus to Develop Command Sets for Computer Vision Based Hand Gesture Interfaces
Sören Lenman, CID (NADA/KTH)
This paper presents the first stages of a project that studies the use of hand gestures for interaction, in an approach based on computer vision. A first prototype for exploring the use of marking menus for interaction has been built. The purpose is not menu-based interaction per se, but to study if marking menus, with practice, could support the development of autonomous command sets for gestural interaction. Some early observations are reported, mainly concerning problems with user fatigue and precision of gestures. Future work is discussed, such as introducing flow menus for reducing fatigue, and control menus for continuous control functions. The computer vision algo-rithms will also have to be developed further.
"The Snatcher Catcher" - an interactive refrigeratorJonas Lundberg, Dept of Computer and Information Science
Aseel Ibrahim, Nokia Home Communications
David Jönsson, Nokia Home Communications
Sinna Lindquist, Centre for User Oriented IT-design
Pernilla Qvardfort, Dept of Computer and Information Science
In order to provoke a debate about the use of new technology, the Snatcher Catcher, an intrusive interactive refrigerator that keeps record of the items in it, was created. In this paper we present the fridge, and how we used it in a provocative installation. The results showed that the audience was provoked, and that few people wanted to have the fridge in their surroundings
A Character-level Error Analyses Technique for Evaluating Text Entry Methods
I. Scott MacKenzie, York University
We describe a technique to analyse character-level errors in evaluations of text entry methods. Using an algorithm for sequence comparisons, we generate the set of optimal alignments between the presented and transcribed text. Character-level errors, categorized as insertions, substitutions, or deletions, are obtained by analysing the alignments and applying a weighting factor. A detailed example using a real data set is given.
Experiences on a Multimodal Information Kiosk with an Interactive Agent
Erno Mäkinen, University of Tampere
Information kiosks provide useful information to many people in many different situations and they should be easy to use since persons with little or no knowledge of computing may use them. One way to ease interaction between a user and a kiosk is multimodal interaction. In this paper, we present a multimodal kiosk that includes a computer vision component and an interactive agent that makes use of computer vision. We also discuss preliminary results of user tests that were carried out with the kiosk.
The role of "genre" in the analysis of the use of videoconference systems at work
Teresa Cerratto Pargman, KTH/IPLab
This paper reports the results of three case studies aimed at exploring the use of videoconference systems in different working situations. We observed how professionals in three geographically distributed groups – one from the academic world and two from large Swedish companies – used different videoconference systems for work. The paper discusses the fact that groups from different working contexts, using different videoconferences systems, decided to avoid them and instead all chose telephone conferences to support their meetings. This result is interpreted as a sign of a gap between emerging technologies and implementations of genres (conventions) in design.
Interfacing with the Invisible Computer
Kasim Rehman, Laboratory for Communications Engineering
The Ubicomp scenario of wirelessly networked processors embedded in everyday objects has been dubbed "the invisible computer''. Users no longer interact with a computer but with familiar objects whose functionality is transparently enhanced by computing features. Using the results of an extensive survey of past and current Ubicomp research, we highlight the major problem of this new style of interaction: because the computer is invisible, the user lacks an appropriate cognitive model for it, and cannot predict the behaviour or even the available features of the system. We argue that effective and usable Ubicomp systems will have to make the invisible computer visible.
Wanted: A Wider Scope for Interaction Design in Sweden
Astrid Selling Sjöberg, Doberman AB
This paper focus on the interaction design process as a practice experienced in the commercial business of telecom. Our concern for new and brave design is not mainly aimed at the development of products, but at the way we as interaction designers view our practice. This paper is to be seen as a reflection on interaction design practice through the daily experience of commercial information technology industry.
Developing 3D Information Systems for Mobile Users: Some Usability Issues
Teija Vainio, Hypermedia Laboratory, University of Tampere
In this paper, we adapted the 3D City Info for mobile users and built a demonstration of future mobile services. Our main purpose was to study the navigation and wayfinding in the three-dimensional city model that is real-time connected to the map of the same area as the model describes and to the database, which includes information from the same area: We have built a fully working mobile laptop version of the 3D City Info with an integrated GPS receiver for our field-tests. The three-dimensional model appears to illustrate the motion and changing the location more clearly than two-dimensional map alone. In the future the possibility to scale, zoom and drag modules and components of the interfaces seems to be useful for different types of context of use.
Football animations for mobile phones
Greger Wikstrand, Umeå University
Animations, based on a streamed model, are a cost and bandwidth efficient way to transmit data to an end-user on the mobile network. They might also be enlightening and enjoyable to view. An experiment was performed to contrast different animations and video codings in terms of their cognitive and emotional effectiveness for spectating a football game on the mobile phone. Analysis shows that different renderings of the same model give differential results for understandability and enjoyment of a game. The conclusion is that more advanced renderings might be able to give an individually optimized blend between emotional and cognitive effectiveness.